Below my first hint. It´s a very important book, because it contains a lot of helpful information, not just about guns.Its author is Brian Lavery, the naval historian and Curator Emeritus at the National Maritime Museum (NMM) in Greenwich.Between 1600 and 1815 the Royal Navy armed and fitted out thousands of sailing vessels and this book sets out these developments with exact information. Hardcover: 319 pagesPublisher: US Naval Inst Pr (1988)Language: EnglishBuy this book at Amazon.de (Germany)Buy this book at Amazon.co.uk (UK)Buy this book at Amazon.com (USA)
equalized and used as a drawing.Additional I have evaluated many official papers by OME, the conservation report by the West Dean College, both Wessex archaeological desk-based assessments and all need biographies on Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.Based on this „input“ the relevant informations of my research I have collected in the mentioned notebook, which has grown to 113 pages. Now I was ready to start the practical part. I have built dozens patterns and examined its weight and proportions to the three existing guns of the 1737´ Victory. Sounds simple but was a very, very annoying process. Like a code for a vault, I combined value by value, constructed the guns forward and thought about its logic combination. The 3D-models led in a lot of findings and dependencies between the guns parts, which greatly expanded the knowledge of the canon construction. For best use of all given and deduced proportions and its individual switching, I have created dozens of tables and extended them with every new finiding. After testing all possible combinations I began again to find other supporters and sent my existing contacts a few informations, to show the seriousness of my work. A special thanks goes to Mr. Brinck and Mr. Trollope which sent me many informations and photographs and answered questions during my scientific elaboration. They helped me to near my result to the most logic pattern of these guns till today. For this cooperation, I am very grateful! If you are interested in my scientific elaboration, please have a little bit patience. Some day in the future I will publish my results in a book and give you the chance to enjoy my analysis. The book contains many detailed descriptions of the persons and time around the establishment of 1716, the evolution of the bronze gun pattern till the Armstrong-design, the way of researching the patterns and many drawings and formulas. Another reason for the publication of the book is the memory and respect to people who spend partially the whole life for ancient guns and its evolution through the ages. At this point I would like to express my special respect to „Charles Trollope“ and „Adrian B. Caruana“. Both published in their lifes very important books around this theme, some of them will be called reverent the „gun bibles“. With the help of my 3D-supported research and the raised guns off from the 1737´ Victory’s wreck side, my book should expand this work in a meaningful way. How deep I can dive into the whole evolution of the European patterns, will show the future. Have you become curious? OK, below a few detailsI am 95% convicted that I have found the right 1716 pattern of Albert Borgard and its evolution by John Armstrong, till his first own design after his visit in Paris, in 1727. The deeper I have read into this theme (my comparison to the „iceberg“), the more dependencies and circumstances were added. Borgard got in 1715 a job in the drawing room, where he designed a complete new system of artillery, for both land and sea service, based on the given Establishment of 1716. He designed not only the guns, but the carriages, the ammunition and the subsidiary equipment around too. His name is most often associated with his reforms and regulations but mostly by his reclassification of the poundage system, whereby the former named cannons becomes caliber named „pounders“. For example becomes the „cannon of 7“ the „42-pounder“ and the „demi-cannon“ the „32-pounder“, and so on.An interesting circumstance is that he became in 1718 the new duty as „Assistant-Surveyor of Ordnance“. So his superior officer, the „Surveyor-General of the Ordnance“ was Michael Richards. Richards died on 5th February 1722, and his position were new appointed with John Armstrong, who took the construction into his own hands. On 1st April 1722 Borgard became the 1st Colonel of the Royal Artillery Regiment and left any influence to his former gun designs. Although his work in the Board of Ordnance was just 6 years, his designs, the introduced poundage-system, his planning & organization of all subsidiary equipment, the regulation of material and its manufacturing changed the future of the English system sustainable. His work led to the founding of the Royal Artillery Regiment, an organization that exists till today.In reason of Borgard´s very successful bronze gun designs, Armstrong focused at first the design of the urgently need iron guns and made just a few changes to bronze guns. The confirmation of this statement we get from the raised 24-Pounder gun from the 1737´ Victory´s wreck side because it were cast in 1723 but is a true Borgard pattern. In reason of Armstrong´s work in the Board of Ordnance his influence to the gun design is documented up from 1721, but like mentioned primary for the iron guns. Although the bronze gun pattern were successful, the iron ones were a very big disaster. In reason of its cost it was a very big requirement to find a good iron pattern but its further development was difficult because of stronger powder and different qualities of iron ore and its metallic characteristics. Another heavy burden to the gun designers was the given gun lengths and weights by the Board of Ordnance, a circumstance the drawing room must deal with. The result was that all iron guns burst during their tests. But this is another part of the history and so my elaboration will focus at first the bronze gun design between 1716 and 1744 and close the gap of knowledge.The important work „Thomas James, His book of Artillery at the Office of Ordnance in the Tower of London, March the 24, 1722“ and released information of the recovered carriage from the London-Wreck, helped me alot in solving the pattern of the transom-bed styled carriage, the 1737´Victory guns was equipped with. Finally the reconstruction of the whole pattern (gun + carriage) could be finished in spring 2017 and can for now just perfected with the measuring and research of more original guns.Below you will find some screenshots of the Victory’s 24-pounder on its original carriage. Charles Trollope mentioned that it was originally painted red, while my pictures contains a not colored one. The reason why I just show uncolored ones is based on the coloring in the 3D-engine. It is not sure when the carriages becomes yellow painted, we know from newer vessels like the 1744‘ Victroy. It seems in a relation with the using of the prefix „HMS“ for ships, which was presumably in the middle of the 18th century. For the British Royal Navy the „HMS Phoenix“ is considered as the first ship where it was used, in 1789. But regarding Nelson’s flagship, the HMS Victory of 1744, this historical statement seems a little bit “spongy”. In February 2017 I expanded my work to my home state Saxony and started the consideration of the European evolution of those guns. I would like to thank all the people who have helped me during my 3D-Reconstruction and promise to continue the work on the guns and to continue the spirit of the previous historians. The 3D-Reconstruction is not complete yet and it will take some time until all bronze guns from 1716-1744 were realized.I especially thank:Charles Trollope, British ordnance expert, historian and fellow of the Society of AntiquariesNico Brinck, Dutch historianHistoric Dockyard Portsmouth, Mr. Richard Noyce, Collections OfficerWest Dean College, Ms. Laurie Price, Conservator of MetalworkRoyal Artillery Museum, Mr. Siân Mogridge, ArchivistMilitärhistorisches Museum der Bundeswehr Dresden, Dr. Berger, Restorer and Museum EducatorCall to all interested people: Please support the research and recreation of ancient guns and feel free to contact me with helping information. Thank you very much!
The next book is another very rare print, based on a dissertation by the German author „Heinrich Müller“. It contains many very helpful information about German Bronze guns through the ages and its ornamentation.Hardcover: 256 PagesPublisher: Deutscher Militärverlag (1968)Language: GermanBuy this book at Amazon.de (Germany)
As base for European gun founding often the next book is highlighted especially. The Spanish Capitain „Diego Ufano“ published in the first decade of the 17th century one of the most important ordnance books, which influenced the European gun founding like no other work. It is translated to several languages but unfortunately not available as reprint. Diego Ufano´s Archeley were translated to German by Johan Theodor de Bry and printed 1621 in München. Original book: Hardcover, 136 PagesPublisher: Erasmo Kempffern (1621 - Frankfurt am Main)
The English bronze gun patterns by Albert Borgard and John Armstrong and the European evolution of proportions
A short overview of my own scientific elaboration:
In modern eyes a cannon is just a long cylinder with a smooth bore and when loaded with powder it can shot different kinds
of projectiles. The most popular one was the solid round ball. How powerful those weapons are was in modern times seemingly for a long period not interesting enough, to research some parameters, with modern techniques. The reason is not only a lack of interest. Ancient guns can’t be shot sharp and recast guns with large calibers are so powerful that almost no military ground allows their firing. Another reason is the evolution of the powder. Ancient guns can by far not been loaded with the same amount of powder as in the 18th century, so the sharp firing of a cannon is still a big risk. In reason of safety regulations sharp shots were mostly executed with significantly less charge and just in small calibers. So far official feedback.At first when new TV-shows tried to gain more viewers, this theme was taken for sometimes very impressive demonstrations of its firepower. The bandwidth reaches from small calibers with solid shots till bigger carronades, with hollow shots.On special events by shooting- and or history-clubs or museums around the world will guns be shoot without projectiles. Local highlights are for example „The Swedish conquer of the Königstein Fortress“. Although the guns emitted just a „big bang“ and a lot of smoke, such events let feel the visitors how an old battleground sounds and smells like. Now you imagine an identical situation on board of a ship…In centuries with little knowledge in gun founding a good and a bad design was only been judged by the question if the gun bursts during tests or not. During my search for answers about the construction of guns I joined the very complex theme by coincidence. Today I work for several years in it but it started with just a very simple question. Like the tip of an iceberg or in this case better said: A stone on the tip of an iceberg.I just wanted to create the bronze guns for one of my planned new 3D-ships, the 1737´ Victory. When I read through my first books I´ve found a few drawings but no construction. I needed at first a Bronze 9 pounder 9ft or 8ft 6in but my chance to find a drawing was by zero. This was disappointing butduring a huge research in global libraries, in the internet and conversations around the planet I´ve found a couple of books and people, which helped me to create my needed guns. A very interesting ascertainmentwas, that in modern times no new knowledge were published and the theme looks like archived. During my further research the theme became complex and after finding a piece for the puzzle of knowledge another complex theme grew out of it.It tooks more than 6 months to get all the first needed books and I was very astonished how intensive two experts tried to solve all mysteries of English gun founding in the 20th century. Adrian B. Caruana und Charles Trollope spend the biggest parts of their lives for the research and analysis of guns and published several documentations and books about this theme. Additional to these books, in the 18th and 19th century was published a few other very important books too. I had now to read and evaluate all books and find out how to construct my need bronze gun. The answer of this question should bring me to the secret of its construction. But like mentioned before, with every new step the theme became more complex and my interest grew.As same hard as to get some books was the sort of all the informations. The authors describes different ways, theories and deduced proportions but none constructed them on paper and checked the result mathematical. I have chosen to take the modern mathematical and physical rework of the gun theme in my own hands and extend it to an contemplation of the European evolution of the gun proportions. For the construction itself this is an initial part of investigation, because the 3D-model and its result in different lengths will be the most important factor for a possible logical proportion and its weight.I collected all given informations in a very big table and started the comparison and filtering of safe proportions. In the next step I contacted the last living great gun expert Charles Trollope and the Dutch historian Nico Brinck. Both helped me a lot but pointed out, that my most important bronze gun pattern (the Albert Borgard one, Establishment 1716) was destroyed by a bomb in 1940. This is very sad but nevertheless I have seen a chance to recreate the pattern with modern 3D-techniques with the help of a few option. The lack in history is bad, but I got much informations from both persons, the West Dean College, the Historical Dockyard in Portsmouth, books, libraries, internet-sources, by measuring guns by myself and the US-incorporation „Odyssey Marine Exploration®“ (short: OME), to rework the whole theme. So the next logical step was to find more informations about the found wreck of the 1st rank sailing vessel Victory (1737), which carried the bronze guns with the need Borgard- and Armstrong-patterns. From the wreck site were recovered fortunately 3 guns. The 2nd positive factor is, that these covers the three states of the Bronze-gun pattern evolution between 1716 and 1744. This is an important key and I believe Adrian B. Caruana would be very impressed if he could have seen it.„The 1737´ Victory“Like mentioned above, the US-incorporation „Odyssey Marine Exploration®“ (short „OME“) found the wreck of this ship on the bottom of the English channel in 2008. A year later they raised 2 different guns off from the wreck site: 1.) A 12-pounder, 9ft 6in long, cast by Andrew Schalch in 1734 2.) A 42-pounder, 10 feet long, cast by Andrew Schalch in 1726 Please note that all Bronze-guns the Victory carried are from a time span where available informations are very, very sparse. This circumstance have a very great historical significance! Here I have found my entry to the huge theme of ancient European gun founding. By the way: In 2011 a Dutch vessel recovered a third gun (illegally) off from the wreck site. For my research this circumstance and the subsequent events was a very big luck, because this gun completes the covering of the missing bronze gun patterns between Borgard and Armstrong.3.) A 24-pounder, 10 feet long, cast by Andrew Schalch in 1723Usually engaged in recovering lost cargos, a salvage company removed apparently unknowingly of Victory´s wreck site the gun. En route back to Holland the ship was boarded by French customs officials and the gun reached on undocumented ways the Dutch ordnance historian Nico Brinck. He examined and measured the gun and associated it through a few clues with the 1737´ Victory. In result the gun was confiscated and brought to England. The gun were stored there in a police station and ekes out a hidden existence. Maybe until today.Why ever, a similar fate share the other two guns too. So far the last information. But they are not hidden in a police station but on the Historical Dockyard in Portsmouth itself. Why, is unknown. When you browse the internet by yourself you will find many informations about a „mud battle“. What is going on? So far it is currently known, a former Labour minister has harshly criticized the key players in ongoing attempts to recover artifacts from the wreck site. Included many English officials and the as „controversial“ named US-incorporation „OME“. I won’t judge this circumstance but rate it extremely irresponsible to hide important and unique guns away from display in the Historical Dockyard in Portsmouth.Before the guns were brought there, they were restored in the West Dean College in England and prepared for its official display. Plus England paid OME for the guns. So far my recherche in England revealed, there is no problem with law. The main controversy is apparently if it is appropriate to let a private US-company recovering state-owned treasures. Oh yes, in many peoples eyes not the extremely rare and scientific very important guns are in the main focus rather the „treasure“, the 1737` Victory carried 1744 (date of the sinking) back to England. In those circumstances, the history reminds the dark side of treasure hunting and the monetary exploitation of historical content. „Gold, Gold, Gold“, a fever and an addiction. Unfortunately since 2008 the official wreck site is widespread and danger of an illegally run for the treasure is big.All my attempts to get access to both guns on the Historical Dockyard in Portsmouth are vain until today. Although I have declared to bear all my costs alone and although I pointed out more than 10 times that the guns have a very high scientific value and key role in solving the last mysteries in English bronze gun founding. An investigation and surveying of both guns would be the best support and hopefully confirmation of my recovered proportions. The discovered knowledge and 3D-supported deep research brings back a part of the English history and will be saved for later generations in my book. Last but not least, I will repeat myself: My point of interest is the solution of this theme and the European evolution of the guns pattern! My ardor applies the history! The big time expenses around this work and the financial burden I carry by myself. At this point, I thank my family and all the people who helped me for their support! Please feel free to contact me if you have any options to realize the measuring of both hidden guns on Historical Dockyard in Portsmouth! Thank you very much! „The scientific elaboration“The amount of work behind the analysis and collection of all datas led to my scientific elaboration and becomes by favorite theme. A few facts about it: I have read 1736 book pages (the ones in the right column (grows constantly)) and collected all important informations in my personal notebook. In reason of my starting theme, I called it „Victory 1737“.But I have not only read books. From my supporters I got many photographs of the relevant guns, which I used as reference for some parts of the gun and its proportions. Some of them I
Additional a few pictures of different states of the reconstructed guns. Some of them were placed during their testings in different versions of the CryEngine® and Unity®.