© Copyright Roman Domel No portion of this webside may be used or reproduced without expressed permission. The book is based on the dissertation by the German author „Heinrich Müller“ Diega Ufano´s Archeley, translated to German by Johan Theodor de Bry and Printed 1621 in München. My recreated bronze 24-pounder, length 10 feet, weight 46 cwt, from the 1737' Victory wreck site. Originally cast by Andrew Schalch in 1723 (in the Royal Brass Foundry Woolwich).
Below   my   first   hint.   It´s   a   very   important book,   because   it   contains   a   lot   of   helpful information, not just about guns. Its    author    is    Brian    Lavery,    the    naval historian    and    Curator    Emeritus    at    the National    Maritime    Museum    (NMM)    in Greenwich. Between   1600   and   1815   the   Royal   Navy armed   and   fitted   out   thousands   of   sailing vessels    and    this    book    sets    out    these developments with exact information. Hardcover: 319 pages Publisher: US Naval Inst Pr (1988) Language: English Buy this book at Amazon.de (Germany)   Buy this book at Amazon.co.uk (UK) Buy this book at Amazon.com (USA)
The   next   recommendation   for   a   book   is an   reproduction   from   Bodleian   Library   in Oxford,   of   John   Muller´s   „A   Treatise   Of Artillery“, published in 1757. It   is   a   great   source   of   information   and worth to own.  Papperback: 394 Pages Publisher: Books on Demand (10. June 2010) Language: English Buy this book at Amazon.de (Germany) Buy this book at Amazon.co.uk (UK)   Buy this book at Amazon.com (USA)
Multiple    times    mentioned    and    praised highly   are   the   both   „Gun   Bibles“,   written by    „Adrian    B.    Caruana“.    Originally    his series    was    planned    in    three    volumes. These    should    cover    „The    History    Of English    Sea    Ordnance“    between    1523 and   1875.   Unfortunately   he   died   before he    finished    the    last    (third)    one.    But posterity   remains   his   first   two   volumes received.  Volume I: Hardcover: 256 pages Publisher: Jean Boudriot Publications (November 1994) Language: English Buy this book at Amazon.de (Germany) Buy this book at Amazon.co.uk (UK) Buy this book at Amazon.com (USA) Volume II: Hardcover: 512 pages Publisher: Jean Boudriot Publications (September 1997) Language: English Buy this book at Amazon.de (Germany) Buy this book at Amazon.co.uk (UK) Buy this book at Amazon.com (USA)  
equalized and used as a drawing. Additional   I   have   evaluated   many   official   papers   by   OME,   the   conservation   report   by   the   West   Dean College,   both   Wessex   archaeological   desk-based   assessments   and   all   need   biographies   on   Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Based   on   this   „input“   the   relevant   informations   of   my   research   I   have   collected   in   the   mentioned notebook,   which   has   grown   to   113   pages.   Now   I   was   ready   to   start   the   practical   part.   I   have   built dozens   patterns   and   examined   its   weight   and   proportions   to   the   three   existing   guns   of   the   1737´ Victory.   Sounds   simple   but   was   a   very,   very   annoying   process.   Like   a   code   for   a   vault,   I   combined value   by   value,   constructed   the   guns   forward   and   thought   about   its   logic   combination. The   3D-models led   in   a   lot   of   findings   and   dependencies   between   the   guns   parts,   which   greatly   expanded   the knowledge of the canon construction. For   best   use   of   all   given   and   deduced   proportions   and   its   individual   switching,   I   have   created   dozens of   tables   and   extended   them   with   every   new   finiding.   After   testing   all   possible   combinations   I   began again    to    find    other    supporters    and    sent    my    existing    contacts    a    few    informations,    to    show    the seriousness of my work. A    special    thanks    goes    to    Mr.    Brinck    and    Mr.    Trollope    which    sent    me    many    informations    and photographs   and   answered   questions   during   my   scientific   elaboration.   They   helped   me   to   near   my result   to   the   most   logic   pattern   of   these   guns   till   today.   For   this   cooperation,   I   am   very   grateful!   If   you are   interested   in   my   scientific   elaboration,   please   have   a   little   bit   patience.   Some   day   in   the   future   I will   publish   my   results   in   a   book   and   give   you   the   chance   to   enjoy   my   analysis.   The   book   contains many   detailed   descriptions   of   the   persons   and   time   around   the   establishment   of   1716,   the   evolution of   the   bronze   gun   pattern   till   the   Armstrong-design,   the   way   of   researching   the   patterns   and   many drawings and formulas. Another   reason   for   the   publication   of   the   book   is   the   memory   and   respect   to   people   who   spend partially   the   whole   life   for   ancient   guns   and   its   evolution   through   the   ages. At   this   point   I   would   like   to express   my   special   respect   to   „Charles   Trollope“   and   „Adrian   B.   Caruana“.   Both   published   in   their lifes   very   important   books   around   this   theme,   some   of   them   will   be   called   reverent   the   „gun   bibles“. With   the   help   of   my   3D-supported   research   and   the   raised   guns   off   from   the   1737´   Victory’s   wreck side,   my   book   should   expand   this   work   in   a   meaningful   way.   How   deep   I   can   dive   into   the   whole evolution of the European patterns, will show the future.  Have you become curious? OK, below a few details I   am   95%   convicted   that   I   have   found   the   right   1716   pattern   of   Albert   Borgard   and   its   evolution   by John Armstrong, till his first own design after his visit in Paris, in 1727. The   deeper   I   have   read   into   this   theme   (my   comparison   to   the   „iceberg“),   the   more   dependencies   and circumstances   were   added.   Borgard   got   in   1715   a   job   in   the   drawing   room,   where   he   designed   a complete   new   system   of   artillery,   for   both   land   and   sea   service,   based   on   the   given   Establishment   of 1716.    He    designed    not    only    the    guns,    but    the    carriages,    the    ammunition    and    the    subsidiary equipment   around   too.   His   name   is   most   often   associated   with   his   reforms   and   regulations   but   mostly by   his   reclassification   of   the   poundage   system,   whereby   the   former   named   cannons   becomes   caliber named   „pounders“.   For   example   becomes   the   „cannon   of   7“   the   „42-pounder“   and   the   „demi-cannon“ the „32-pounder“, and so on. An   interesting   circumstance   is   that   he   became   in   1718   the   new   duty   as   „Assistant-Surveyor   of Ordnance“.   So   his   superior   officer,   the   „Surveyor-General   of   the   Ordnance“   was   Michael   Richards. Richards   died   on   5th   February   1722,   and   his   position   were   new   appointed   with   John Armstrong,   who took the construction into his own hands. On   1st   April   1722   Borgard   became   the   1st   Colonel   of   the   Royal   Artillery   Regiment   and   left   any influence to his former gun designs. Although   his   work   in   the   Board   of   Ordnance   was   just   6   years,   his   designs,   the   introduced   poundage- system,   his   planning   &   organization   of   all   subsidiary   equipment,   the   regulation   of   material   and   its manufacturing   changed   the   future   of   the   English   system   sustainable.   His   work   led   to   the   founding   of the Royal Artillery Regiment, an organization that exists till today. In   reason   of   Borgard´s   very   successful   bronze   gun   designs,   Armstrong   focused   at   first   the   design   of the   urgently   need   iron   guns   and   made   just   a   few   changes   to   bronze   guns.   The   confirmation   of   this statement   we   get   from   the   raised   24-Pounder   gun   from   the   1737´   Victory´s   wreck   side   because   it were   cast   in   1723   but   is   a   true   Borgard   pattern.   In   reason   of   Armstrong´s   work   in   the   Board   of Ordnance   his   influence   to   the   gun   design   is   documented   up   from   1721,   but   like   mentioned   primary   for the iron guns. Although   the   bronze   gun   pattern   were   successful,   the   iron   ones   were   a   very   big   disaster.   In   reason   of its   cost   it   was   a   very   big   requirement   to   find   a   good   iron   pattern   but   its   further   development   was difficult because of stronger powder and different qualities of iron ore and its metallic characteristics.     Another   heavy   burden   to   the   gun   designers   was   the   given   gun   lengths   and   weights   by   the   Board   of Ordnance,   a   circumstance   the   drawing   room   must   deal   with.   The   result   was   that   all   iron   guns   burst during   their   tests.   But   this   is   another   part   of   the   history   and   so   my   elaboration   will   focus   at   first   the bronze gun design between 1716 and 1744 and close the gap of knowledge. Additional   a   few   pictures   of   different   states   of   the   recreated   guns.   Some   of   them   were   placed   during their testings in different versions of the CryEngine®.
The   next   book   is   another   very   rare   print, based   on   a   dissertation   by   the   German author „Heinrich Müller“ . It   contains   many   very   helpful   information about   German   Bronze   guns   through   the ages and its ornamentation. Hardcover: 256 Pages Publisher: Deutscher Militärverlag (1968) Language: German Buy this book at Amazon.de (Germany)
As    base    for    European    gun    founding often     the     next     book     is     highlighted especially.   The   Spanish   Capitain   „Diego Ufano“   published   in   the   first   decade   of the     17th     century     one     of     the     most important       ordnance       books,       which influenced    the    European    gun    founding like    no    other    work.    It    is    translated    to several   languages   but   unfortunately   not available as reprint. Diego   Ufano´s   Archeley   were   translated to    German    by    Johan    Theodor    de    Bry and printed 1621 in München. Original book: Hardcover, 136 Pages Publisher: Erasmo Kempffern (1621 - Frankfurt am Main)
The English bronze gun patterns by Albert Borgard and John Armstrong and the European evolution of proportions
A short overview of my own scientific elaboration:
In   modern   eyes   a   cannon   is   just   a   long   cylinder   with   a smooth   bore   and   when   loaded   with   powder   it   can shot different kinds
of projectiles. The most popular one was the solid round ball. How    powerful    those    weapons    are    was    in    modern    times seemingly   for   a   long   period   not   interesting   enough,   to   research some   parameters,   with   modern   techniques.   The   reason   is   not only   a   lack   of   interest.   Ancient   guns   can’t   be   shot   sharp   and recast   guns   with   large   calibers   are   so   powerful   that   almost   no military ground allows their firing. Another   reason   is   the   evolution   of   the   powder.   Ancient   guns can   by   far   not   been   loaded   with   the   same   amount   of   powder   as in   the   18th   century,   so   the   sharp   firing   of   a   cannon   is   still   a   big risk.   In   reason   of   safety   regulations   sharp   shots   were   mostly executed    with    significantly    less    charge    and    just    in    small calibers. So far official feedback. At   first   when   new   TV-shows   tried   to   gain   more   viewers,   this theme       was       taken       for       sometimes       very       impressive demonstrations   of   its   firepower.   The   bandwidth   reaches   from small    calibers    with    solid    shots    till    bigger    carronades,    with hollow shots. On    special    events    by    shooting-    and    or    history-clubs    or museums    around    the    world    will    guns    be    shoot    without projectiles.    Local    highlights    are    for    example    The    Swedish conquer of the Königstein Fortress “.   Although   the   guns   emitted   just   a   „big   bang“   and   a   lot   of   smoke, such    events    let    feel    the    visitors    how    an    old    battleground sounds   and   smells   like.   Now   you   imagine   an   identical   situation on board of a ship… In   centuries   with   little   knowledge   in   gun   founding   a   good   and   a bad   design   was   only   been   judged   by   the   question   if   the   gun bursts during tests or not.  During   my   search   for   answers   about   the   construction   of   guns   I joined   the   very   complex   theme   by   coincidence . Today   I   work   for several   years   in   it   but   it   started   with   just   a   very   simple   question. Like   the   tip   of   an   iceberg   or   in   this   case   better   said: A   stone   on the tip of an iceberg. I   just   wanted   to   create   the   bronze   guns   for   one   of   my   planned new   3D-ships,   the   1737´   Victory.   When   I   read   through   my   first books   I´ve   found   a   few   drawings   but   no   construction.   I   needed at   first   a   Bronze   9   pounder   9ft   or   8ft   6in   but   my   chance   to   find   a drawing   was   by   zero.   T his   was   disappointing   but    during   a   huge research   in   global   libraries,   in   the   internet   and   conversations around   the   planet   I´ve   found   a   couple   of   books   and   people, which   helped   me   to   create   my   needed   guns. A   very   interesting ascertainment    was,   that   in   modern   times   no   new   knowledge were   published   and   the   theme   looks   like   archived.   During   my further   research   the   theme   became   complex   and   after   finding   a piece   for   the   puzzle   of   knowledge   another   complex   theme   grew out of it. It   tooks   more   than   6   months   to   get   all   the   first   needed   books and   I   was   very   astonished   how   intensive   two   experts   tried   to solve   all   mysteries   of   English   gun   founding   in   the   20th   century. Adrian   B.   Caruana   und   Charles   Trollope   spend   the   biggest parts   of   their   lives   for   the   research   and   analysis   of   guns   and published   several   documentations   and   books   about   this   theme. Additional   to   these   books,   in   the   18th   and   19th   century   was published a few other very important books too. I   had   now   to   read   and   evaluate   all   books   and   find   out   how   to construct   my   need   bronze   gun.   The   answer   of   this   question should    bring    me    to    the    secret    of    its    construction.    But    like mentioned    before,    with    every    new    step    the    theme    became more complex and my interest grew. As   same   hard   as   to   get   some   books   was   the   sort   of   all   the informations.   The   authors   describes   different   ways,   theories and   deduced   proportions   but   none   constructed   them   on   paper and   checked   the   result   mathematical.   I   have   chosen   to   take   the modern   mathematical   and   physical   rework   of   the   gun   theme   in my    own    hands    and    extend    it    to    an    contemplation    of    the European evolution of the gun proportions. For   the   construction   itself   this   is   an   initial   part   of   investigation, because   the   3D-model   and   its   result   in   different   lengths   will   be the   most   important   factor   for   a   possible   logical   proportion   and its weight. I   collected   all   given   informations   in   a   very   big   table   and   started the   comparison   and   filtering   of   safe   proportions.   In   the   next step    I    contacted    the    last    living    great    gun    expert    Charles Trollope   and   the   Dutch   historian   Nico   Brinck.   Both   helped   me   a lot   but   pointed   out,   that   my   most   important   bronze   gun   pattern (the   Albert   Borgard   one,   Establishment   1716)   was   destroyed by   a   bomb   in   1940.   This   is   very   sad   but   nevertheless   I   have seen    a    chance    to    recreate    the    pattern    with    modern    3D- techniques with the help of a few option. The   lack   in   history   is   bad,   but   I   got   much   informations   from both   persons,   the   West   Dean   College,   the   Historical   Dockyard in   Portsmouth,   books,   libraries,   internet-sources,   by   measuring guns    by    myself    and    the    US-incorporation    „Odyssey    Marine Exploration®“ (short: OME), to rework the whole theme. So   the   next   logical   step   was   to   find   more   informations   about the   found   wreck   of   the   1st   rank   sailing   vessel   Victory   (1737), which   carried   the   bronze   guns   with   the   need   Borgard-   and Armstrong-patterns. From   the   wreck   site   were   recovered   fortunately   3   guns.   The 2nd   positive   factor   is,   that   these   covers   the   three   states   of   the Bronze-gun   pattern   evolution   between   1716   and   1744.   This   is an   important   key   and   I   believe   Adrian   B.   Caruana   would   be very impressed if he could have seen it. „The 1737´ Victory“ Like    mentioned    above,    the    US- incorporation     „Odyssey          Marine Exploration®“   (short   „OME“)   found the   wreck   of   this   ship   on   the   bottom of   the   English   channel   in   2008.   A year    later    they    raised    2    different guns off from the wreck site: 1.)   A   12-pounder,   9ft   6in   long,   cast by Andrew Schalch in 1734 2.) A   42-pounder,   10   feet   long,   cast by Andrew Schalch in 1726 Please   note   that   all   Bronze-guns   the   Victory   carried   are   from   a time   span   where   available   informations   are   very,   very   sparse. This circumstance have a very great historical significance!  Here   I   have   found   my   entry   to   the   huge   theme   of   ancient European gun founding. By   the   way:   In   2011   a   Dutch   vessel   recovered   a   third   gun (illegally)    off    from    the    wreck    site.    For    my    research    this circumstance   and   the   subsequent   events   was   a   very   big   luck, because   this   gun   completes   the   covering   of   the   missing   bronze gun patterns between Borgard and Armstrong. 3.) A 24-pounder, 10 feet long, cast by Andrew Schalch in 1723 Usually   engaged   in   recovering   lost   cargos,   a   salvage   company removed   apparently   unknowingly   of   Victory´s   wreck   site   the gun.   En   route   back   to   Holland   the   ship   was   boarded   by   French customs   officials   and   the   gun   reached   on   undocumented   ways the   Dutch   ordnance   historian   Nico   Brinck.   He   examined   and measured   the   gun   and   associated   it   through   a   few   clues   with the    1737´    Victory.    In    result    the    gun    was    confiscated    and brought   to   England.   The   gun   were   stored   there   in   a   police station and ekes out a hidden existence. Maybe until today. Why   ever,   a   similar   fate   share   the   other   two   guns   too.   So   far the   last   information.   But   they   are   not   hidden   in   a   police   station but   on   the   Historical   Dockyard   in   Portsmouth   itself.   Why,   is unknown.   When   you   browse   the   internet   by   yourself   you   will find   many   informations   about   a   „mud   battle“.   What   is   going   on? So    far    it    is    currently    known,    a    former    Labour    minister    has harshly    criticized    the    key    players    in    ongoing    attempts    to recover   artifacts   from   the   wreck   site.   Included   many   English officials    and    the    as    „controversial“    named    US-incorporation „OME“.   I   won’t   judge   this   circumstance   but   rate   it   extremely irresponsible   to   hide   important   and   unique   guns   away   from display in the Historical Dockyard in Portsmouth. Before   the   guns   were   brought   there,   they   were   restored   in   the West   Dean   College   in   England   and   prepared   for   its   official display. Plus England paid OME for the guns So   far   my   recherche   in   England   revealed,   there   is   no   problem with   law.   The   main   controversy   is   apparently   if   it   is   appropriate to   let   a   private   US-company   recovering   state-owned   treasures. Oh   yes,   in   many   peoples   eyes   not   the   extremely   rare   and scientific   very   important   guns   are   in   the   main   focus   rather   the „treasure“,   the   1737`   Victory   carried   1744   (date   of   the   sinking) back   to   England.   In   those   circumstances,   the   history   reminds the   dark   side   of   treasure   hunting   and   the   monetary   exploitation of    historical    content.    „Gold,    Gold,    Gold“,    a    fever    and    an addiction.   Unfortunately   since   2008   the   official   wreck   site   is widespread   and   danger   of   an   illegally   run   for   the   treasure   is big. All   my   attempts   to   get   access   to   both   guns   on   the   Historical Dockyard   in   Portsmouth   are   vain   until   today.   Although   I   have declared   to   bear   all   my   costs   alone   and   although   I   pointed   out     more   than   10   times   that   the   guns   have   a   very   high   scientific value    and    key    role    in    solving    the    last    mysteries    in    English bronze   gun   founding.   An   investigation   and   surveying   of   both guns   would   be   the   best   support   and   hopefully   confirmation   of my   recovered   proportions.   The   discovered   knowledge   and   3D- supported   deep   research   brings   back   a   part   of   the   English history and will be saved for later generations in my book. Last   but   not   least,   I   will   repeat   myself:   My   point   of   interest   is the   solution   of   this   theme   and   the   European   evolution   of   the guns    pattern!    My    ardor    applies    the    history!    The    big    time expenses   around   this   work   and   the   financial   burden   I   carry   by myself.   At   this   point,   I   thank   my   family   and   all   the   people   who helped   me   for   their   support!   Please   feel   free   to   contact   me   if you   have   any   options   to   realize   the   measuring   of   both   hidden guns   on   Historical   Dockyard   in   Portsmouth!   Thank   you   very much! „The scientific elaboration“ The    amount    of    work    behind    the analysis   and   collection   of   all   datas led   to   my   scientific   elaboration   and becomes by favorite theme. A few facts about it: I   have   read   1736   book   pages   (the ones    in    the    right    column    (grows constantly))       and       collected       all important       informations       in       my personal   notebook.   In   reason   of   my starting    theme,    I    called    it    „Victory 1737“. But   I   have   not   only   read   books.   From   my   supporters   I   got   many photographs   of   the   relevant   guns,   which   I   used   as   reference   for some   parts   of   the   gun   and   its   proportions.   Some   of   them   I
My 113 pages strong "Victory 1737"-notebook This picture shows the coat of arms, cast by Andrew Schalch in 1723 on the 1737 Victory´s 24-pounder